By Patrick O'Neil
This moment variation depends on an analogous winning process that exotic the 1st: it covers the foundations of database concept with unrivaled thoroughness, and it conscientiously hyperlinks concept to the true international of database programming and management. A cautious dialogue of SQL criteria and a mess of examples drawn from genuine databases-Oracle, DB2, and Informix-complements the authors' concept-oriented guide, permitting you to increase product-specific figuring out and to benefit the $64000 variations among the SQL dialects that may assist you to write moveable applications.
* Focuses greatly at the object-relational version that's quickly gaining recognition and revolutionizing the database undefined. assortment kinds and UDF's are completely covered.
* Introduces new relational beneficial properties of SQL taken from the most recent types of brand new hottest database items, Oracle, DB2, and Informix.
* bargains thorough assurance of the SQL-99 average, together with additions designed that can assist you take complete benefit of the object-relational model.
* presents elevated programming examples meant to enhance your figuring out of transaction processing and blunder handling.
* Explains in actual fact the foundations of logical database layout, together with these in terms of the E-R version and normalization, with a couple of new illustrations and examples.
* provides the newest indexing and question processing innovations, reminiscent of bitmap indexing, and exhibits the right way to use them to accomplish major functionality improvements.
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Extra resources for Database. Principles Programming Performance
This is the same as saying that any two distinct rows of a table can be distinguished by differences in some column value; or, looking at it a different way, that the set of all columns distinguish any two rows. Is it possible that some subset of the columns distinguishes any two rows? Yes. For example, in the CUSTOMERS table, the single c i d column distinguishes between any two rows. ) We say that Cld is a superkey for the CUSTOMERS table, meaning that any two rows in the table will always have distinct values in this (singleton) set of columns.
And the other refers to relations (the counterpart of tables), tuples (corresponding to rows), attributes (for columns), etc. We'll use both sets of terms so you can learn to recognize them easily. Thus we will frequently refer to the column 29 Chapter 2 30 THE RELATIONAL MODEL names of a table as the attributes of that table (for instance, the attributes of the table CUSTOMERS are c i d , cname, c i t y , and di s e n t ) , or to rows as tuples. A database is defined to be a set of named tables, or relations.
M Property 1 is just a mathematical way of saying that the values any row u takes on for the set of attributes K are unique. , u[K] = v[K]), they are really one row after all (u = v). We refer to a set of attributes that fulfills property 1 but not necessarily property 2 as a superkey. Property 2 assures us that a key is a minimal set of attributes with property 1. Thus a key is always a superkey, but a key has the additional property that no proper subset is a superkey. The fact that a singleton attribute with property 1 is always minimal follows from the fact that the empty set of attributes, (p, does not differentiate two rows: we say that u[(p] = ν[φ] for all rows u and v.