By Kenneth E. Avis, Carmen M. Wagner
content material: advent --
rules of large-scale cryopreservation of cells, microorganisms, protein suggestions and organic items --
Large-scale cryopreservation: procedure improvement for freezing and thawing of enormous volumes of phone suspensions, protein options, and organic items --
technique selectino concerns for long term upkeep of mammalian cells and microorganisms --
Cryopreservation of mammalian mobile cultures --
Freeze-drying of human dwell virus vaccines --
The layout and use of thermal shipping containers.
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Additional info for Cryopreservation : applications in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology
Experimental work was conducted in very small samples. 38 Cryopreservation Schwartz and Diller (1983a, 1983b) investigated the osmotic response of cells during freezing. The organisms were yeasts that were exposed to varying cooling rates (from 9° to 82° C/min) and supercooling (from 1° to 36° C). Even at a low cooling rate of 9° C/min, the cells did not follow an equilibrium curve for normalized cell water volume versus temperature change. At higher cooling rates, the cells were found to be farther and farther away from an equilibrium; and at rates above 35° C/min, they seemed to lose only a small amount of water with a decrease in temperature and an increase in concentration of external solutes.
Studholme and McGann (1996) described a prediction method for an estimate of the phase diagrams for sim ple compositions of solutes used in cryobiology. Results for aque ous solutions of DMSO, ethylene and propylene glycols, ethanol, methanol, glycerol, D-glucose, sucrose, 1- and 2-propanol, and ace tone were reported. A set of equations for the phase diagram esti mate was derived from the Gibbs' free energy equation, using changes in enthalpy and entropy during freezing. The required parameters were the molecular weights, molecular volumes, van der Waal's gas constant applied to liquids, and a solubility parame ter 8.
Coli porins are trimers (except the OmpA, which is a monomer); they have an approximate channel length of 35 angstroms; the constriction zone length is about 9 Angstroms; and its cross section is about 7 x 11 Angstroms. The major struc tural block of the porins is a beta-sheet cylinder. Trimer porins con sist of three such cylinders. The external part of the trimer (about 25 angstroms thick), which is embedded into the wall, has nonpolar residues exposed. Along the internal channel, the charged amino acid residues are located on the sides of the channel form ing an electric field.