By M. Bahadir, G. Pfister (auth.), Dr. G. Haug, Prof. Dr. H. Hoffmann (eds.)
Since the center of the Sixties, new forms of formula for biologically energetic com kilos were constructed, that have been brought into the literature lower than the time period managed unencumber Formulations (CRF). motivated through effects from former and winning pharmaceutical study, which used to be engaged within the creation of prepa rations with protracted results (introduction onto the marketplace within the 12 months 1952 of D amphetamine within the type of pellets, covered to various levels with fat and waxes) 1), experiments have been performed to move the prolongation of effectiveness to pesticidal components additionally, by way of a depot formula. preliminary paintings used to be focused on the construction of protecting coatings for sonar platforms in marine ecosystems. through antifouling paints or rubber coatings containing tri-n-butyl-tin oxide (TBTO), the expansion of marine organisms on sonar domes, buoys and hulls within the water should be successfully avoided 2. 3). managed free up formUlations of insecticides are outlined as depot platforms which regularly liberate their poisonous parts into the surroundings over a particular time period (usually months to years) 4). in line with this definition, such formu lations will be effectively hired the place a prolonged publicity to biologically energetic compounds is needed over an extended interval. the next hypothetical instance is meant to demonstrate this 5). In Fig. 1, the period of job of a non-persistent pesticide with a loss fee less than environmental stipulations of t1/2 = 15 days, is graphically illustrated.
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Extra info for Controlled Release, Biochemical Effects of Pesticides, Inhibition of Plant Pathogenic Fungi
The pyrethroid formulations, particularly effective against cabbage root flies (P. brassicae) in phytotron experiments (refer Tab. 6), were tested in the field against cabbage root flies in radishes, and carrot flies (Psila rosae) in carrots and compared with a conventional soil insecticide (BIRLANE granule). When 40 mg AI . 2%. 8 % was achieved. 8 %). If the pyrethroid formulations were applied in the seedbed when sowing like BIRLANE, they displayed no activity 119). The controlled release formulations of cypermethrin and fenvalerat in the form of EVA granules (2 % AI) were tested in cocoyam cultivation (Xanthosoma sagittifotium) in Nigeria as soil insecticides against scale insects (Aspidiella hartii) and mealy bug (Planococcus citri).
It has also been reported, however, that the microcapsules were gathered by honey bees together with pollen and stored in pollen balls in the hives, which resulted in slow intoxication of the bees. 05-41 mg . kg -1) 116,117). 17 mg' kg- 1 active substance in the balls after 7 months which, after a further 10 months, killed 94 % of the exposed bees. Such a combinatiON of accumulation and persistence as a result of micro-encapsulation apparently results in a longer toxicity of the active substance for the bee colony.
_. __... _ ..... J! UV - Detector Fig. 5. Flow control measuring device for migration experiments with controlled release film formulations of pesticides 30 M. Bahadir and G. PfIster floating of low density films (p < 1 g . cm -3) and, thus, an only partial perfusion. This apparatus (Fig. 0 x 10 em), closed at both ends, containing a spirally wound strip of pesticidal films (1 x 8 em). The glass tube is connected, via a steel capillary, with a HPLC-pump and an UV detector with flow cell (8 ilL), which at "max continuously measures the concentration of active substance in the water.