By Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, Kevin P. Johnson
Following an creation to coevolutionary innovations, the authors mix experimental and comparative host-parasite techniques for trying out coevolutionary hypotheses to discover the impression of ecological interactions and coadaptation on styles of diversification and codiversification between interacting species. Ectoparasites—a varied assemblage of organisms that levels from herbivorous bugs on crops, to monogenean flatworms on fish, and feather lice on birds—are strong versions for the research of coevolution simply because they're effortless to watch, mark, and count number. As lice on birds and mammals are everlasting parasites that spend their complete lifecycles at the our bodies in their hosts, they're superb to producing a man-made review of coevolution—and, thereby, supply a thrilling framework for integrating the recommendations of coadaptation and codiversification.
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Extra resources for Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History
Most lice are so dependent on the warm, humid conditions near the host’s skin that they cannot survive for more than a few hours or days off the host (Tompkins and Clayton 1999). ” Because sucking lice were evolutionarily derived from within chewing lice (Lyal 1985; Johnson et al. 1; fig. 2). Sucking lice are parasites of placental mammals; they have piercing-sucking mouthparts (not shown) that emerge from the anterior tip of a narrow head (plate 2a). Chewing lice, which are more diverse, are parasites of birds, as well as both placental and marsupial mammals (Price et al.
Even dinosaurs had parasites. Wolff et al. (2009) suggested that the severe erosive lesions on the mandibles of the Tyrannosaurus rex fossil “Sue” are consistent with trichomonosis, a disease caused by Trichomonas gallinae–like protozoan parasites (fig. 7). Indeed, the authors suggest that this parasite may have caused Sue’s demise. Amber is another useful source of information about the antiquity of interspecific interactions (DeVries and Poinar 1997). Schmidt et al. (2012) described gall mites trapped in 230-million-year-old Triassic amber.
2011). The blood diet of sucking lice is nutritionally incomplete. Recent studies confirm that sucking lice have endosymbiotic bacteria that can synthesize vitamin B and other supplements (Sasaki-Fukatsu et al. 2006; Perotti et al. 2007). For example, the human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) has a bacterium with a plasmid containing a unique arrangement of genes required for the synthesis of pantothenate, an essential vitamin deficient in the diet of the louse (Kirkness et al. 2010). Unfortunately, little is known about the physiological basis of symbiotic interactions between most sucking lice and their bacterial associates.