By Richard J. Cote, Ram Datar
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Additional resources for Circulating Tumor Cells
Gene expression analysis at the mRNA level can be achieved on chip via RNA in situ hybridization (RNA ISH) as demonstrated by HB-CTC Chip to analyze human pancreatic CTC expression of Wnt2 . Off-chip mRNA analysis for products of tumor-speciﬁc genes can be analyzed by qRT-PCR or RNA-seq methods from pooled CTCs as demonstrated by data 2 Afﬁnity-Based Enrichment of Circulating Tumor Cells 23 obtained from CTC enrichment methods such as GEDI, GO nanosheets, and HB-CTC Chip [11, 17, 25]. However, due to contaminant leucocytes and other blood components captured nonspeciﬁcally by these afﬁnity-based CTC enrichment methods, performing high-throughput mRNA analysis on both tumor and non-tumorspeciﬁc genes requires further isolation of pure population of CTCs in the post-capture process.
Gertler R et al (2003) Detection of circulating tumor cells in blood using an optimized density gradient centrifugation. In: Allgayer H (ed) Molecular staging of cancer. Springer, Berlin, pp 149–155 5. Becker FF et al (1995) Separation of human breast cancer cells from blood by differential dielectric afﬁnity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(3):860–864 6. de Bono JS et al (2008) Circulating tumor cells predict survival beneﬁt from treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 14(19):6302–6309 7.
EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is being expressed in cancers of epithelial origin, and not in normal components in circulation. Thus, antibodies against EpCAM can be used to selectively capture epithelial CTCs from peripheral blood. Here, we discuss several types of afﬁnity-based technologies utilizing EpCAM or other tumor speciﬁc antigens in the capture of CTC cells (CellSearch and MagSweeper), as well as technologies that combine afﬁnity-based capture with other physical parameters such as cell size (CTC-Chip and GEDI).