Download e-book for kindle: Chemical Pesticides - Mode of Action and Toxicology by Jørgen Stenersen

By Jørgen Stenersen

Environmental-friendliness, problems with public healthiness, and the professionals and cons of genetically-modified plants all obtain ordinary assurance within the world's media. This, in flip, has ended in elevated wondering and research of chemical insecticides. Stenersen's concise and well timed advent to chemical insecticides describes those compounds in keeping with their mode of motion on the mobile and biochemical point.

Chemical Pesticides presents solutions to questions reminiscent of why insecticides are poisonous to the objective organism and why insecticides are poisonous to a few organisms and never others. It describes how a variety of poisons intrude with biochemical tactics in organisms. The e-book additionally explores how resistance to insecticides develops, how resistance can be utilized to demonstrate the idea of evolution, and the way it may be used to provide herbicide-resistant crop vegetation. criminal concerns and capability environmental difficulties also are mentioned.

By offering an built-in, but basic description of recent chemical insecticides, the writer presents a appropriate textual content for execs and scholars in organic disciplines akin to biochemistry, medication, agriculture, and veterinary science.

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Extra resources for Chemical Pesticides - Mode of Action and Toxicology

Sample text

Hundreds of insects were used to determine the plotted LD50 doses of the mixtures. The great scatter illustrates the inborn uncertainty of such determinations. All the points are well inside the line for additivity, and some kind of potentiation is evident. 3 Atrazine and organophosphate insecticides Sometimes more surprising examples of interaction may be observed. The herbicide atrazine is not toxic to midge (Chironomus tentans) larvae but has a strong synergistic effect on several organophosphorus insecticides such as chlorpyrifos and parathion-methyl, but not to malathion.

Two or more compounds may interact to influence the symptoms in an individual and change the number of individuals that get the symptoms in question. Interaction may be caused by simultaneous or successive administration. 1 Definitions It is important but difficult to give stringent definitions of various types of interactions or joint action. Because the dose–response curve seldom is linear, and because the relative response to one or more substances given either alone or together cannot exceed 1, we cannot define additive interaction as cases where p(a + b) = pa + pb.

17 example. It activates the so-called Ah receptor in vertebrates, inducing several enzymes such as CYP1A1 (see p. 181). Organisms use a complicated chemical system for communication between individuals of the same species. These substances are called pheromones. Good examples are the complicated system of chemicals produced by bark beetles in order to attract other individuals to the same tree so that they can kill them and make them suitable as substrates. Man-made analogues of these pheromones placed in traps are examples of poisons of this category.

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