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By Paul A. Gleeson (auth.), Adrienne E. Clarke Ph.D., Ian A. Wilson D. Phil. (eds.)

Carbohydrate because the basic made from photosynthesis has an essential position within the upkeep of existence on the earth. till really lately, curiosity in advanced carbohydrates focussed on their structural position within the extracellular matrix/ cellphone wall of animal, plant, and microbial cells and on their function as strength resources (e.g., starch and glycogen) and struc­ tural elements (e.g., cellulose) in ordinary items. there has been, even if, oblique proof that carbohydrates might play an informational position; this facts used to be from the locate­ ing final century that plant lectins triggered particular agglutina­ tion of yes animal cells and, extra lately, that the agglutination was once mediated through interactions among the plant lectin and telephone floor carbohydrates. it truly is now transparent that endogenous carbohydrate binding proteins are very important in cell-cell acceptance phenomena in animal structures. lately, notable proof has been awarded that advanced oligosaccharides, derived from phone partitions, also are very important in plant reputation occasions, for instance in signalling the defence mechanisms of a plant to reply to assault by means of bugs and microbial pathogens.

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I. Changes during flowering development and pollination. Plant Physiol 82: 885-889 Gleeson P A, Clarke AE (1979) Structural studies on the major component of Gladiolus style mucilage, an arabinogalactan protein. Biochem J 181 :607-621 Gleeson PA, Clarke AE (1980) Arabinogalactans of sexual and somatic tissues of Gladiolus and Lilium. Phytochemistry 19: 1777-1782 Gleeson PA, Feeney J, Mills G, Hughes RC (1984) Galactosyl transferases of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells: characterization of two oligosaccharide products synthesized using bovine asialosubmaxillary-gland mucin as acceptor.

In: Dingle JT, Dean RJ (eds) Lysosomes in biology and pathology, vol 7. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 63-82 Cummings RD, Kornfeld S, Schneider WJ, Hobgood KK, Tolleshaug H, Brown MS, Goldstein JL (1983) Biosynthesis of N- and O-linked oligosaccharides of the low density lipoprotein receptor. J BioI Chern 258: 15261-15273 Cummings RD, Soderquist AM, Carpenter G (1985) The oligosaccharide moieties of the epidermal growth factor receptor in A-431 cells. J BioI Chern 260: 11944-11952 Darvill AG, Albersheim P (1984) Phytoalexins and their elicitors-A defence against microbial infection in plants.

1982). The protomer, containing a single polypeptide chain of237 amino acid residues, is a compact dome-shaped molecule approximately 42 x 40 x 39 Ain size (Fig. 2). The chain folding is dominated by two extensive antiparallel p structures: a six-stranded sheet that makes up the entire back of the molecule and a seven-stranded sheet that passes through its center. Two of the six-stranded sheets interact end-to-end via main-chain hydrogen bonds to form an elongated dimer with a single 12-stranded sheet; two of these dimers in turn interact face-to-face, mainly through their side chains, to form the 222 tetramer (REEKE et al.

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