By Katherine A. H. Graham, Caroline Andrew
The government and its rules remodel Canadian towns in myriad methods. Canada in towns examines this courting to raised comprehend the interaction between altering demographics, how neighborhood governments and electorate body their arguments for federal motion, and the ways that the nationwide executive makes use of its strength and assets to form city Canada. such a lot stories of neighborhood governance in Canada concentrate on politics and coverage inside of towns. The essays during this assortment flip such research on its head, via reading federal courses, instead of municipal ones, and looking at how they effect neighborhood guidelines and paintings with neighborhood professionals and civil societies. via a chain of case reports - starting from federal coverage referring to Aboriginal humans in towns, to the advent of the federal gasoline tax move to municipalities, to the impression of Canada's emergency administration regulations on towns - the participants offer insights approximately how federal politics impression the neighborhood political area. examining federal activities in varied coverage fields, the authors discover significant styles of federal motion and final result in Canadian towns. A well timed contribution, Canada in towns bargains a complete examine of various components of municipal public coverage that experience emerged in Canada lately.
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Extra info for Canada in Cities: The Politics and Policy of Federal-Local Governance (Fields of Governance)
When we use causal language about the “effects” of one factor on another, it should generally (except in the case of demographic variables) be interpreted in this way: we generally provide evidence that is necessary but not sufﬁcient to establish causation. 30 Many questions were repeated, with exactly the same wording, from one survey to the next, so that trends in opinion over time can be assessed. Many questions— especially in 2002— concerned elements of purposive belief systems: foreign policy goals, perceived threats, feelings about foreign countries, and many speciﬁc foreign policy preferences.
Presidents and other foreign policy leaders may have concealed or misrepresented crucial facts for a substantial period of time. The executive branch has a great deal of power to manipulate information. In such situations, opposition voices are often silent; foreign policy “bipartisanship” (or, less charitably, collusion between the two major parties) is maintained, and ordinary citizens have little choice but to rely on what the ofﬁcials say. S. S. to go to war in Vietnam. S. terrorists and has large quantities of potent—perhaps nuclear—weapons of mass destruction that pose an imminent threat to the 28 chapter one United States, many Americans are likely to be convinced.
How can the views of, say, seven hundred respondents possibly represent the thinking of a population of three Taking Public Opinion Seriously 25 hundred million people? Here survey research stands on fairly ﬁrm ground. So long as the sample is randomly chosen, statisticians have shown that it will usually be highly representative of the population: similar to the overall population in proportions of males to females, young to old, urban to rural residents, and so on. And it will be quite similar—within statistical “conﬁdence intervals” that can be precisely calculated—in political attitudes.