By Morris Rockstein
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Embryogenesis Digestion nutrients Integument Hormones and improvement Diapause middleman Metabolism Neuroanatomy Neurophysiology muscle groups Flight Sensory structures imaginative and prescient Circulatory method Immunity respiratory Excretion Pheromones replica Appendix. learn extra. .. summary: Embryogenesis Digestion nutrients Integument Hormones and improvement Diapause middleman Metabolism Neuroanatomy Neurophysiology muscle mass Flight Sensory platforms imaginative and prescient Circulatory process Immunity breathing Excretion Pheromones replica Appendix
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Diapause Maintenance Most diapausing insects rely upon reserves of triglycerides, glycogen, and trehalose, and to a lesser extent upon proteins and amino acids to support their metabolism. In diapausing larvae, pupae, and adults these reserves are accumulated mainly in the fat body and hemolymph during the active feeding period which precedes the onset of diapause. Glycogen and trehalose re- 46 G. Michael Chippendale serves appear to be most valuable during the early stages of diapause when they are utilized preferentially.
In addition, various amounts of glycoproteins may be present, especially in the hemolymph. , glucose synthesis from noncarbohydrate substrates) and fatty acid synthesis from glucose will also be discussed in this section. 1. Glycogen Synthesis Glycogen, a branched chain polysaccharide composed of a-Dglucopyranose residues, represents the major reserve polysaccharide of insects. The molecular weight of glycogen ranges from about 106 to 108. The straight-chain portion of the glycogen molecule is made up of a-Dglucopyranose residues linked through 1,4-glucosidic bonds with branching occurring in the molecule as a result of 1,6-glucosidic bond formation.
Americana. Evidence has been presented which shows a maximum concentration of hemolymph trehalose in the second half of the scotophase when adults were held under short day conditions (12 hr L : 12 hr D). This trehalose concentration declines rapidly just before the onset of the photophase and does not peak again until the succeeding scotophase. Whether these fluctuations represent a true circa dian rhythm under endogenous control has not been finally determined. However, the maximum concentration of trehalose does not coincide with feeding or activity cycles.