By Richard E. White
Over six hundred drawings and sixty five colour work painting consultant species of the 111 households of North American beetles. contains info on accumulating and protecting beetles.
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Extra resources for Beetles : A Field Guide to the Beetles of North America
We will examine whether a diurnal rodent, the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) avoids predator odors and whether this avoidance is specific to certain predator species that pose more of a threat than others. This experiment arose from our course “Chemical Ecology of Vertebrates” during the autumn of 2000. Surprisingly, we could not find published studies of predator odor effects on squirrels. Dr. Frank Rosell, then a student in the course, undertook this experiment as his individual research project and extended it after the end of the course for a publication (Rosell 2001).
Remember, the main question is whether predator odor reduces feeding. As a variation of the experiment described above, one of our course participants chose to present free-ranging gray squirrels with urine of red fox, raccoon (Procyon lotor), humans, and - as control - white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (Rosell 2001). References Müller-Schwarze D (1972) The responses of young black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) to predator odors. J Mammal 53:393–598 Nolte DL, Mason JR, Epple G, Aronov E, Campbell DL (1994) Why are predator urines aversive to prey?
Run three replications of 20 treated and 20 control acorns each. 1 Squirrels’ selection of acorns conditioned in soil or water Acorn Date Time pile # Responses # Acorns # Acorns # Acorns removed eaten # Shells left remaining Remarks Results • How do the squirrels approach the acorns? • How do they seem to choose? By smell, touch, or taste? • What do they do with the acorns? Distinguish the following behaviors: Handle, mouth, gnaw, eat, divide, excise embryo, carry away, bury? Any other behavior?