Download PDF by Stephen F Walker: Animal Learning: An Introduction (Introductions to Modern

By Stephen F Walker

An creation to animal studying because it has been studied in smooth experimental psychology, with an old advent to the nature/nurture arguement in either animal and human psycholgy. contains dialogue of habituation, classical (Pavlovian) and instrumental (operant) conditioning, perceptual and discrimination studying, and reminiscence and cognition within the context of animal behaviour.

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Clearly this would not follow directly from the ‘neuronal model of the stimulus theory’ of Sokolov (1963, 1975; see point (v), p. 39 above). 2, but the results for it were very similar to those for the ‘constant 100’ group). 2. shows, Groves and Thompson were able to obtain roughly analogous results with the hindlimb flexion reflex of the spinal cat, it seems plausible that, as they suggest, an interaction between a sensitizing and an habituating process brought about the low level of responsiveness in the gradual group.

At any rate, this was how Pavlov himself invariably presented his work on conditioned reflexes (1927, 1955). By the mechanisms studied as conditioning reflexes, ‘groups of various agents or elements of nature, both simultaneous and consecutive, are synthesized by the animal into units. In this way synthesis is effected in general’ (1955, p. 273). ‘Thus, from the point of view of conditioned reflexes the cerebral hemispheres appear as a complex of analyzers, whose purpose is to decompose the complexity of the internal and external worlds into separate elements and moments and then to connect all these with the manifold activity of the organism, (1955, p.

72). It is clear therefore that synapses between individual sensory and motor neurons can habituate, and it is likely that this mechanism controls a substantial fraction of the habituation seen in the total behavioural repertoire of seaslugs. It does not therefore follow 39 that this mechanism is the only one available to explain all reductions in response to repeated stimulation in all other animal species. (iv) Sensitized states affecting the S-R connection It is a matter of empirical fact that repeated stimulation sometimes has an effect which is the opposite of habituation — there is some kind of warm-up or sensitizing process so that later stimuli produce a bigger response than earlier ones.

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