By Peter I. Bogucki, Pam J. Crabtree
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Additional info for An Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World Ancient Europe, 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000
These changes include a general preference for cremation burial rather than inhumation, an increase of metal objects and weapons in graves and hoards, and a stronger tendency to place at least some sites on defensible locations, often surrounded with a wall. These changes were long explained as betokening times of more unrest. More recent studies have emphasized the multiple possible reasons for these phenomena, including gradual development of chieﬂy or tribal so- 17 5 : M A S T E R S O F M E T A L , 3 0 0 0 – 1 0 0 0 B .
The Bronze Age. : Cambridge University Press, 1930. ) Coghlan, Herbert H. Notes on the Prehistoric Metallurgy of Copper and Bronze in the Old World. 2d ed. Occasional Papers on Technology, no. 4. Oxford: Pitt Rivers Museum, 1975. Harding, Anthony F. European Societies in the Bronze Age. Cambridge World Archaeology. : Cambridge University Press, 2000. (See, in particular, pp. ) Northover, J. Peter. ” Bulletin of the Institute of Archaeology, London 19 (1982): 45–72. Pearce, Mark. ” In Metals Make the World Go Round: The Supply and Circulation of Metals in Bronze Age Europe.
There are numerous methodological problems. Prehistoric artifacts do not have homogeneous compositions, not least because of segregation of elements in cast artifacts. Unfortunately, some of the elements determined by these analyses show this characteristic, such as arsenic, whose segregation we have already discussed. Furthermore, ore bodies vary in composition through the outcrop, so that provenance is difﬁcult to ascertain. Recycling seems to have been practiced from the Early Bronze Age (because one of the advantages that metal presents over stone tools is that broken artifacts can be repaired easily and the raw material reused), which means that metals from different sources may have been melted together.