By R.D. Blandford, H. Netzer, L. Woltjer, T.J.-L. Courvoisier, M. Mayor
Beginning with this quantity, the Lecture Notes of the well known complex classes of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy could be released each year. In each one path, 3 huge lectures given by way of major specialists of their respective fields disguise varied and crucial elements of the topic. the twentieth direction, held at Les Diablerets in April 1990, handled present study on energetic galactic nuclei; it represents the main up to date perspectives at the topic, offered with specific regard for readability. the former classes thought of a large choice of matters, starting with "Theory of Stellar Athmospheres" in 1971 and finishing with "The Milky manner as a Galaxy" in 1989. The Lecture Notes of those Saas-Fee classes seemed as guides of the Geneva Observatory, from which they could nonetheless be ordered (chemin des Maillettes fifty one, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland).
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The large number (∼ 10) of Cloud PN papers at this conference demonstrates their continuing attraction. Here, we discuss the current state-of-the-art in the surveys needed to ﬁnd those PN. 2 Survey Techniques In this paper, the term “survey” refers to the process of identifying previously unknown PN. , objective prism imaging). One can imagine applying other methods that were used in the Galaxy, for example, IRAS-like color surveys (van de Steene & Pottasch 1993). Fig. 1. An SMC PN identiﬁed by Jacoby & De Marco with the CTIO 4-m showing the on-band (left) and oﬀ-band (center) images.
More importantly, a survey at either [O III] λ5007 or at Hα includes emission from nearby lines (either [O III] λ4959 or [N II] λλ6548, 6583) and continuum to corroborate the classiﬁcation of an object. An exciting new variant on the latter method is the planetary nebula spectrograph, or PNS, as pioneered by Douglas et al (2002). It has demonstrated that PN can be found by the thousands when a special purpose instrument is designed and applied to a rich galaxy (Merrett et al 2003). This camera also yields kinematics for each PN, allowing a measurement of the host galaxy’s dark matter content directly from the survey material (Romanowsky et al 2003, Romanowsky, these proceedings).
1998 PASA, 15, 33p 9. A. , 1999, PASA 16, 288P 10. A. & Phillipps, S. 2001, in ASP Conference Series No. 232. Eds. R. Clowes, A. Adamson & G. Bromage, 38P 11. A. , 2003, in ASP Conference Series No. 289. Eds. S. Ikeuchi, J. Hearnshaw, T. Hanawa, 165P 12. Smith, C. & MCELS Team, 1998, Pub. Astron. Soc. M. go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze, Italy Abstract. A review of the imaging searches for planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Local Group (LG), with an updated list of references, is presented. 5m INT telescope at La Palma.