Download e-book for kindle: A Companion to Applied Ethics by R. G. Frey, Christopher Heath Wellman

By R. G. Frey, Christopher Heath Wellman

It is a rather first-class choice of articles on every kind of truly attention-grabbing subject matters in utilized ethics. somebody who thinks that educational philosophers usually are not "practical" or usually are not fascinated by "real international" matters and difficulties should still look at this publication. it is simply choked with attention-grabbing and critical stuff. the entire entries i have learn are exceptionally transparent and good written and supply a superb advent to the subject. i'm hoping it will definitely comes out in paperback so it truly is more uncomplicated to buy!

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H l d ' t accept th The animating idea of contractualism is implicit in Kant's "kingdom of ends" formulation of his Categorical Imperative Kant maintains that anyone subject to the moral law must be able to be regarded also as "making the law" (Kant 1998) O l th th l l b t h h t f l f it f f l t bjt l t l th l i l t t h l Thi i i f R ' id f l i t i t litil it iti i hih 1987) h "hil iti ith ll thl b l h i l f " (R A d i t R thi i l ibl if l ht h ll th " l ill" th ill f h as f d l b Siill K t i f 24 THEORIES OF ETHICS ll " d " b h l t h h ld " l i l t " it as f and equal member of the "kingdom of ends" Here we have the central difference with contractarianism Moral principles of right are not rules that individuals would prescribe and attempt to gain acceptance for from their different individual perspec ti b i i t f l f i t t Th th l idiidl ld ib ( d t) f ti f d l th Bt h i f i l l i thi ti t b d t d ?

Aristotle's is a distinctive kind (a paradigm perhaps) of non-moral virtue ethics "nonmoral" again because although Aristotle's translators frequently use "moral i t " t i l t h t h i tlki b t ll f h t tht d ith h i Aittl d t l t th it t ti f l l d h i h ll tbl l Vit f Aittl di k dt id h t iti t h ht i fi bl (kalori) f it i b Th ti ti i ht N i t h lld " k d i " ideal ith t t hih b btt t l tht 34 THEORIES OF ETHICS li ith ilt F A i t t l th ti thil ti h esteem pride and disdain or contempt not guilt respect selfrespect and moral indignation Virtues are excellences {arete) traits that is that make something an excellent i t f it k i d It i it i kif f l t h t it h h d t h t it t ll I l k hih t i t ll ( l l t ki) i lti t thi' f t i (ergon) h t i t i tiit A A i t t l bli t h t th h t i t i tiit d i t i t i fh bi i ti ( i ) tht dititil h f f hi (f ti l d i t h l bl fi (kl)) h ld t h t th it tit f character that is settled dispositions to choose certain actions and avoid others as intrinsically noble or base We might put his point by saying that human excel lences are states of character concerned with choices that are themselves guided by idl fh ll I l l it thi i h ( l ) h idl A l t h h it b tid i Aittl' t t l l i l f t i i t i f h t di t h i h th i thi tht h bi i h t l f to b it d t b b d A l it thi b put forward simply as a normative view about which traits in human beings are worthy of esteem (or disdain) Analogously a moral virtue ethics is a theory of what is worthy of distinctively moral esteem that is traits that are worthy of esteem in a moral agent E l f h i b f d i Libi d th i h t t h t Sttih h i l h F i Hth Th H t h d t h t th b i l h i t f b l th d i t b f i t th d k th h M l t h hld i t iril f t bt f ti tit f h t l th d i t d d t f h bi d th t i t bi Th i i h i h th f it thi iht b ti of case or practical ethics First nonmoral virtue ethics reminds us that questions of right and wrong are far from the only or perhaps even the most important ethical questions we can ask in specific cases Thus it might be that failing to provide i i f i t l id t li ld h d ffri l t h h t i l ll th l ift i f l d lftifti O if th i t i t thi t h t b d jtl t t d l t t i till ift i i t t t i t d t d th i t l l t i t tht t dd ith l i i fll tifi h if S d ti f th i t i i d d t h ht action it is appropriate to take in specific cases In considering what to do it may be helpful to ask what a virtuous person or someone with a specific virtue (say generos ity) would do in that case This may simply be a useful heuristic but it may also flt th A i t t l i i t h t th i ff l t i thil iht t tht b d d ll lid b h l k th id " " f th i t A L i A t i td t h "If h t k 'll k " id b t j Thid i t thiit tf d ti f it t i l id t it ( ll i h t ) ti bt t f ht k ti 35 STEPHEN L DARWALL it ll i h t Th it b hld tht ti i th iht or appropriate thing to do in some case or circumstance just in case it is what the virtuous person would (characteristically) do in that circumstance (Hursthouse 1999) Such a view might depart from the letter of Aristotle's position since he idtifd it ttld d i i t i t h ifi ti f thi k ( b l ) Thi ld t k hih t i t it d d hih ti bl t i N t h l i it ld h l d t h t t th it f ti i ibl t h h th id d t f it h i ld i it l t Aittl' i f d t l iit W h t i t it thi i th id t h t id t sial questions of case ethics can be gained only by looking to the virtues or the virtuous person as a model Writers on case ethics therefore look to virtue ethics less frequently than they do t th thil t h i ill h th d ith i f l iht d If j d t f l bliti iliitl diti hldi th tbl f li it ill b bl t d d tht tifi ti f th j d t b f l t d i t t h t th b j t t th d t i i i l t It i thi d d tht h l d t th k i d f normative moral theories that have been advanced by contractarian/contractual ists consequentialists and deontologists In each case the goal has been to articu late actionguiding principles of right conduct that can be grasped and applied itht il it th th th j d t f ll t t l t Rf A b G E M (1958) M d l h i l h Philosophy 33 1 1 9 Aristotle (1998) Nicomachean Ethics trans W D Ross New York: Oxford University Press Bth J (1970) Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation d J H B dH L A H t L d Athl Dancy Jonathan (1993) Moral Reasons Oxford: Blackwell Social Philosophy and Policy 14 D l l Sth (1997) S l f i t t d lf Cbid U i i t P 15878 Al i Ell F P l ( d ) Self-interest C b i d CO W t i P (1998) Philosophical Ethics B l d (2002) Welfare and Rational Care Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press G t h i D i d (1986) Morals by Agreement O f d C l d P H Gilbrt (1975) M l ltii d f d d The Philosophical Review 84 3 2 2 I d i l i EST H k t t H b b Th (1994) Leviathan d E M C l Hursthouse Rosalind (1999) On Virtue Ethics Oxford: Oxford University Press K t I l (1998) Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals d d t M G N Y k Cbrid U i i t P McDowell John (1979) Virtue and reason The Monist 62: 3 3 1 5 0 IN U i i t fNt D M l t A l d i (1981) After Virtue N t D BbbMrill Mill J h S t t (1957) Utilitarianism d Ok P i t I d i l i The Philosophical Review 95 163207 Rilt P t (1986) M l li Rawls John (1971) A Theory of Justice Cambridge MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University 36 THEORIES OF ETHICS (1993) Political Liberalism.

New York: Oxford University Press Jonsen A and Toulmin S (1988) The Abuse of Casuistry: A History of Moral Reasoning. Berkeley CA: University of California Press Katz J with Capron A and Glass E S (1972) Experimentation with Human Beings. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Kelman H (1968) A Time to Speak: On Human Values and Social Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Maclntyre A (1984) After Virtue, 2nd edn Notre Dame IN: University of Notre Dame Press Rawls J (1971) A Theory of Justice. Cambridge MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press (rev edn 1999) (1996) Political Liberalism.

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